The two major divisions of the MIT Police are Patrol Operations and the Special Services Division. Patrol Operations encompasses the three operating shifts that deliver the day-to-day police, emergency, and service tasks to the MIT community 24 hours a day. These services are provided by sergeants and officers who patrol the campus in cruisers and on foot, bicycles, and motorcycles. Emergency Medical Services are often initiated by the officers in the Patrol Division.

The Special Services Division encompasses two units: investigations and crime prevention. The Investigations Unit carries out the investigatory functions of the division in the same manner as a municipal police department in conducting preliminary and follow-up investigations. The detectives assigned to the division also coordinate and cooperate with other law enforcement agencies in the course of their daily activities. The Special Services Division provides MIT community members with procedural assistance of the court system.

The Investigative Unit also is responsible is responsible for investigating sensitive crimes, including domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, and sexual harassment. The Crime Prevention Unit helps educate MIT community members on preventing crime. At the beginning of each school year, the unit distributes crime prevention information to incoming freshmen.

The unit also conducts security surveys for dorms, laboratories, and offices, and presents seminars for students and employees on topics such as "Streetwise and Safe." Throughout the year, members of the community are provided with courses on safety issues, including identifying and avoiding potentially dangerous situations, as well as the Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) course.

The Training Unit responsibilities are managed by the administrative captain, who coordinates with the Massachusetts Criminal Justice Training Council and local police academies. This training includes basic police academy and specialized courses. The Training Division also is responsible for in-house training, i.e., implementing emergency procedures and responding to environmental medical situations.